PART II: The Impact of Important New Upgrades to Cognitive Load Theory on The Performance of Warriors Using Hi-Tech Systems

Introduction

In part I of this blog I laid the foundation for my claim that the Military needs to fully understand the recent upgrades to cognitive load theory (CLT) or risk wasting money, time and the performance improvements promised by new military technology. We followed the development of the theory from its genesis by John Sweller (1988) through 2012 when upgrades, based on research in the field of evolutionary educational psychology (Geary, 2008; Paas & Sweller, 2012) suggested that different kinds of information (social and cultural) are handled differently in working memory. Finally, we introduced new research that found that cognitive load could be actively controlled through the addition of specific visual stimuli that takes advantage of the brain’s bias towards socially-relevant information (Bevilacqua, Paas & Krigbaum, 2016: Bevilacqua 2017). It was also found that this bias works differently for males and females (Bevilacqua, 2017; Castro-Alonzo, et al., 2019). Continue reading “PART II: The Impact of Important New Upgrades to Cognitive Load Theory on The Performance of Warriors Using Hi-Tech Systems”

PART I: The Impact of Important New Upgrades to Cognitive Load Theory on The Performance of Warriors Using Hi-Tech Systems

Background

When John Sweller wrote his seminal paper on Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) in 1988 (Sweller, 1988) he was primarily interested in the differences in how experts and novices approached problem solving for learning and education. As the community of interest grew, researchers realized that how the information was presented to a learner (problem-solver) could help to guide problem solving and therefore improve learning and retention. This research occurred at a time when the age of digital communications and computer usage was exploding across the globe. During this time Researchers such as Richard Mayer (Mayer & Moreno, 2003) attempted to develop heuristics that would help people optimize the display of digital information for learners. Still others (Lavie, 2010; Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004) started looking at the other side of the equation, i.e., human attention and understanding, to try to understand how that attribute of the human eye-brain system could best be guided to make more efficient use of the displayed information (Figure 1). That research determined that to focus attention on the desired information, the distracting effects of all other information must be reduced or removed. This led to more research in ways to optimize low cognitive load learning and work environments. Continue reading “PART I: The Impact of Important New Upgrades to Cognitive Load Theory on The Performance of Warriors Using Hi-Tech Systems”

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Part 5: CORE Toolset

In this series I am writing several blog articles about Artificial Intelligence. This week’s article, the last in the series, introduces the CORE toolset that can be used by the Government under an existing license to meet most of its AI/ML needs. Continue reading “Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Part 5: CORE Toolset”

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Part 1: Defining Artificial Intelligence

In this series, I am writing several blog articles about Artificial Intelligence. We finally have enough processing power and memory to accomplish great things. However, after 40 years of working in this field I am amazed at what some companies are trying to sell as Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. The purpose of these articles is to help the reader sift through the hype and discriminate real AI/ML from useless marketing that lacks real substance. This week’s articles concentrate on a simple but important aspect of the AI/ML problem….What is the REAL definition of AI and ML? Continue reading “Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Part 1: Defining Artificial Intelligence”

How to Design and Build an Artificially-Intelligent Brain…(But Why?)

Introduction: Hints From Cognitive Load Theory and Evolutionary Psychology

Cognitive Load Theory attempts to understand how human working memory processes and stores information entering the brain through the sensory channels (Sweller). Research has shown that human working memory imposes limits on a human’s ability to store information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; Cowan, 2010; Miller, 1956) as well as the length of time it can be stored (Peterson & Peterson, 1959). According to this theory, working memory, therefore acts like a filter for sensory data, allowing it to be pre-processed before being passed on to long-term memory for longer term encoding and storage(Bartlett, 1932). Continue reading “How to Design and Build an Artificially-Intelligent Brain…(But Why?)”

Testing Artificially Intelligent Systems…. Not just possible…Easy!

A senior manager in our test group down at Eglin Air Force Base forwarded me a white paper by SOGETI a company in Europe. The white paper was titled, “Testing of Artificial Intelligence, AI Quality Engineering Skills – An Introduction”. In general the white paper was well done however the authors based their conclusion that AI testers will need a plethora of new skills to be able to test AI on the following statement, “AI is not required to learn, it could be using pre-programmed rules to handle all possible outcomes. However, for systems with more than basic complexity, this has proved to be a task too large and too complex to handle (it has been tried and failed multiple times since the 1960s)”. What these authors apparently didn’t now is that BRC did solve this problem in 1996 under the Army’s small business innovation research (SBIR) program. In 1998 BRC was awarded the Tibbetts award from the small business administration for “excellence in innovation” for this breakthrough. Continue reading “Testing Artificially Intelligent Systems…. Not just possible…Easy!”

Artificial Intelligence or Artificially Augmented Intelligence?

Earlier this year I wrote an article on LINKEDIN that questioned the Government’s stated desire to develop Artificial Intelligence (AI) for use in military systems. My point being that true AI (sometimes called Real AI), cannot be controlled or validated and this makes it unsuitable for implementation in a machine capable of destroying human life. Continue reading “Artificial Intelligence or Artificially Augmented Intelligence?”